Thursday, October 31, 2019

Future scope on China and the Gulf Cooperation Council relationship Essay

Future scope on China and the Gulf Cooperation Council relationship (GCC) - Essay Example USSR is a socialist Republic and has similar internal state policies as that of China, the policies of China closely follow that of Moscow which is then the seat of powers of the former USSR. However, in the effort to forge stronger alliances, China strived to reach out to countries like the United States and those countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. Unfortunately, talks of alliance during the meetings held in Bandung, China failed to create a strong alliance between these nations. Throughout the 1990s, there were many important changes that occur in the foreign policy of China. These changes in the Chinese foreign policies were triggered by global political changes following the collapse of Soviet Union. The collapse of the USSR heralded the end of the cold war and triggered global political changes. As the USSR ceased to be one of the world’s superpowers, the United States took on the role as â€Å"big brother† of smaller nations and took upon itself to serve and the â€Å"police and watchdog† of democracy and power. The shift in the balance of world powers ushered the changes in China’s foreign policies especially towards the countries around the Persian Gulf. Believing that the shift in world powers may eventually affect the stability of oil supply and production around the oil rich nations of the Persian Gulf, and that the slowdown in the production of oil may affect the economic activities in China, the Chinese government emba rked into the task of fostering stability in the area by advocating the resolution of conflicts in the area internally and without any foreign interventions. As the largest country around this part of the world, China has the power to influence the economic activities in this region. In the 1990s, the value of Chinese investments around this area amounted to more than 2.2 billion US dollars. This is twice the value of its investments in the region in the 1980s. Chinese importation for oil reached about $9.5 billion dollars in

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Emerging market Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Emerging market - Essay Example A developing or emerging market is one characterized by high industrial growth. This implies increase in the industrial output and India has been going through rapid industrialization. It has seen a growth of around 27% percent in Industrial output which is second only to China. Growth in Industrial output means a great deal of wealth is being generated and looking at the statistics we can see that as a result this wealth generation there was a need of an organized financial system. As a result of the unprecedented growth that India experienced, many financial firms including banks, insurance companies, consumer banking firm sprouted to serve the increasing needs of Indians in order to properly utilize their newly-earned wealth. (Lei, 2007) Another feature of an emerging market is proper governance and India is being governed by a very rational and open-minded parliament. Some credit also goes to Indian army for that as India has never faced Military coups or any other embarrassing situation like that where power is snatched from the representative of the people and given to one sole dictator. This economics stability has earned India a title of "Largest democracy in the world". One must keep in mind is that economic stability is imperative for fast growth. The reason behind why countries around India who are blessed with the same natural characteristics as India and high populations have never been able to reach the level of India, when it comes to economic growth. Almost all countries surrounding India suffer from instable political system and periods of military coups occasionally, but the real credit goes to patriotic Indian army, which has never been temped into launching a coup against their own people. This has earned India a escalated position not only in the Asian economics but also in the world economics, where Indian case studies adorn the history, present and future. (theindianpolitics, 2009) A land of around 1.5 billion people, India's climb in the social and economic spheres has been tremendous over the past few years. During this time, India has grown from strength to strength. Proving all its doubters wrong, India is reaching great new heights at a very fast pace. This growth of India is not confined only to their economy, but let it be any facet; India is growing rapidly in an attempt to escalate to nadir. India is leaving its mark on just economic progress and development but all sphere of life or all fields where it can grow any further. For example, social growth of India can be judged by the fact that entire Asia is intimating European culture, but Europe and Western Nations are intimating India's culture. India's film industry, "bollywood" has penetrated western market and became the second largest film industry of the world after Hollywood. This great success of bollywood and Indian culture has given India exposure to far flung areas and contributed heavily in the recognition of India all around the world. As a result of all this factors and blessed with tremendous amount of useful natural resources, such as cheap and skilled labor, tropical climate, great fertile land etc. (Vyas, 2003) India has become a business hub and all trading and business activities are diverting towards India. Owing to all these factors and great trust shown by the foreign investor towards India, Bombay Stock Market is growing around 17% annually which is comparable to the richest stock markets like New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Environment And Strategy: Hong Kong Ocean Park

Environment And Strategy: Hong Kong Ocean Park This report is about Ocean Park of Hong Kong one of the largest amusement ocean park in the Orient and even in the world. Situated in financial center of Southeast China this park add some info about park!! In this report we are going to cover such topic as strategy concepts of Ocean Park, external and internal environment of organisation and its corporate, business-level and international strategy. On base of data collected well give our recommendation and advice to CEO and Board of Ocean Park of Hong Kong about Parks strategy to the next 10 years (from 2005 to 2015). The main aim of this report is to provide in-depth strategic analysis to CEO and Board members. Thus, this work is focused on challenges, opportunities and threats of organisation, its culture and economic aspects, strengths and weaknesses of organisation, core competency of ocean park in order to help to improve it in anticipation of arrival of Hong Kong Disneyland. Strategy concepts and vocabulary -Mission (Strategic purpose, not specified) Ocean Park provides all guests with memorable experiences that combine entertainment and education, while inspiring life long learning and conservation advocacy. Our aim is to maintain a healthy financial status, while striving to deliver the highest standards of safety, animal care, products and guest service. http://www.oceanpark.com.hk/html/en/footer/corporate-information/vision.html -create all activities for perfect family holiday -increase involvements of visitors in environmental issues and lives of animals -Goals and objectives to fulfill its mission Boost the number of annual visitors from four million in 2004 to five million by 2010 To make a 0,5 per cent contribution to Hong Kongs gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010 (page 7) -Vision (More specified) http://www.oceanpark.com.hk/html/en/footer/corporate-information/vision.html Ocean Park aspires to be a world leader in providing excellent guest experiences in a theme park environment connecting people with nature Become number one marine-based park for each family not only from Hong-Kong but also from mainland China. To be main attraction for all tourists, who visit Hong-Kong -What performance measures would you use to determine the success of Ocean Park? -It is the hometown favorite. It had been a long-time favorite of several generations ((its been operated for more 28 years). Many local people were sympathetic to Ocean Park. People who had visited the park as children were now bringing their own children to visit the park. Its reputation even extended into mainland China. It had become a fixture of Hong Kongs cultural heritage. (p.5) -The number of visitors in 2004 is 4 m of people (with daily maximum capacity 35,000 people). -Total revenue in 2004 was 536, 2 HK$ m comparing to 428,3 HK$ m in 2003, surplus for 2004 year was 95,7 HK$ m comparing to deficit 4,1 HK$ m in 2003. recognizability of new brand (Whiskers became a household name in Hong Kong) -Who are the various stakeholders in Ocean Park organization (how might they impact on its purpose and mission)? Stakeholders, who help to achieve parks purpose and mission: Hong Kong government, Home Affairs Bureau and the Tourism Board, employees of Ocean Park corporation, its visitors (customers). Interfere with achieving parks purpose and mission: Activist groups (certain environmental groups and animal rights activists) forbid of buying and transportation exotic animals to park, trade associations and unions (bus companies and taxi drivers) forbid in building a mass transit railway (MTR), competitors regain market share. External Environment -Conduct a PESTEL analysis for Ocean Park, identify the key driving forces for change facing Ocean Park; Rank key driving forces based on their predictability and potential impact on Ocean Park, then develop some scenarios and identify implications of these scenarios for Ocean Park. PESTEL: Political: Government support Improving relationship between Hong Kong and Mainland China Promotion of tourism the easiness of the restrictions and promotion of the free travel of China in 2003 that helped to inject a new life to the tourism industry of Hong Kong environmental law Economic: Growth and development of the global amusement park industry Disneylands arrival Increasing number of mainland visitors Increasing standards of living in midland China Raise and spend HK$5.55 billion Social: Major events and activities (peak seasons and holiday themes: Chinese New Year, Easter Holiday, Summer Holiday, Halloween and Christmas) Media, advertisement and publicity, required for these special events Change of demographic (Population growth rate, age distribution, size of families) Increasing the cost of labor and more guarantees for employees Negative affect of Outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outcome Technological: Development of the amusement machinery industry Increasing popularity of new technologies for consumers (internet, mobile, digital camera) Amortization of park equipment Developing of new transport system (for example, a mass transit railway (MTR)) Research and development activities (creating of new park amusement) Environmental: Opposition from certain environmental groups about the importation of wild animals to Ocean Park Expenses on maintenance of exotic animals Protests of animal rights activists against relocation of animals Climate change (rain season in spring, hot in summer, typhoons in summer) Legal: Approval of Town Planning Board for hotel, Legislative Council for MTR station. Restrictions on mergers Employment laws Key driving forces and their ranking : 1)Global changing in tourism for Hong-Kong and Asia-Pacific region (development of tourism in region) 2)Raise and spend HK$5.55 billion from private and government loans to revamp parks well-worn product line (approval of development plan) 3)Disneylands arrival worldwide success of main competitor-Disneyland, coming to Hong Kong (Disneys success or failure) Binary table of scenarios for Ocean Parks key drivers (in decreasing order of their impact on park): Development of tourism in region Approval of development plan Disneys failure Scenario + + + Successful scenario + + + + Middle scenario + + + + + Failure scenario -Define Ocean Parks industry and conduct a five forces analysis: Which are the dominant forces in the industry? How may the five forces change? What are the underlying dynamics which are driving these five forces, and how may the five forces change? What are the impacts on key competitors and on Ocean Park? What can be done to influence the impact of the five forces? Five forces analysis for amusement park industry: 1) Threat of New Entry In terms of the amusement park industry, the entry barrier is high due to the need to invest large amount of financial resources (for park equipment, human resources maintenance), a lot of time required for parks planning, construction, development and launching, a lot of licenses and legalization required (safety, sanitary, security etc.). In addition to the amusement park required land for a full scale development. This factor is important because Hong Kong has a high land price real estate market. Re-write in own words!!!!! 2) Threat of Rivalry: It is important to consider that with lack of differentiation, visitors choice will greatly over the price and service, thus causes pressure for the intense price and service competition. Due to high threat of rivalry, Ocean Park is implementing different plans and activities such as redevelopment and introduction of new attractions in order to catch the attention of the visitors and differentiate themselves from rivals. There are no rivals with exactly the same range of products. Disneys arrival is only expected. Re-write in own words!!!!! 3) Threat of Substitution: (where this information from I like this point!)) The main threat of substitution is Hong Kong Disneyland Wetland Park, a new international theme park and an educational park (Appendix 2) Apart from this, there are other forms of substitution. From the education side, Hong Kong residents can switch to go to Cultural Centre, Mai Po Wetland, Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Garden. For entertainment purpose, they can visit the Karaoke, Cinema, Game Centre, or have a day trip to China. 4) Bargaining power of buyers (visitors): (where this information from I like this point!) -Tourists Tourists have a low bargaining power as long as must see image successfully built-up and the Park cannot be replaced by other substitutes. Therefore, Ocean Park focuses to build up this image especially in Asia. Local residents The buying power of local resident is high since they have many choices as mentioned above. The switching cost is relatively low. Also, Hong Kong people like new experience and their loyalty to the product are generally low. The Park, therefore, launched difference programs like Big Five events with difference theme each year to bring new excitement and experience to them. Besides, special discount in low season and year pass intent to attract 5) The power of suppliers. Suppliers have quite high power. Thus, construction elements of amusement rides are huge and complicated, thats why park is highly tied with supplier. Otherwise, this market is developed and the choice of suppliers is become greater now. While constructing buildings (hotels, etc) with particular contractor park cant easily change to another contractor because of high switching cost). The situation with the exotic animals is such as Ocean Park can buy in particular country only. Which are the dominant forces in the industry? The dominant forces in the industry are: rivalry, buyers and substitutes. How may the five forces change? Looking forward, the five forces will change in this way: -Rivalry will increase with Disneys arrival; -Buyer power will increase slightly; -Substitute threat will also increase; -Entry threat decrease dramatically; -Supplier power will also decrease. (Exhibit 2.5 p.72) What are the underlying dynamics which are driving these five forces? Aftermath of economic crises and increasing in number of suppliers will decrease supplier power. Disneys arrival decrease entry threat in entertainment park industry. Developing of new technologies will affect rising of substitutes. Also competitors with new technologies will gain (in this aspect Disney has an advantage) Disneys arrival increase demands in diversification of Ocean Parks products. Ticket price advantages (185 HK$ for adult ticket at Ocean Park compared to 295HK$ for the same ticket at Disney). The main rival (Disney) is also same market oriented (families with children). What are the impacts on key competitors and on Ocean Park? Five forces much more affect Wetland park Ocean Parks key competitor, located at the northern part of Tin Shui Wai, in Yuen Long than Ocean Park itself, because Wetland parks products are less differentiated. It has a 10,000m2 visitor centre, Wetland Interactive World, and a 60-hectare Wetland Reserve. (http://www.wetlandpark.com/en/aboutus/overview.asp). Arrival of other competitor Disney and its substitutes doesnt affect much Ocean Park because it has its its own niche. What can be done to influence the impact of the five forces? More differentiation of new products, directed mainly to Chinese native culture will affect rivalry, substitutes and buyers. Unique high-quality products and services also will influence buyers. For seeking suppliers big impact will have Internet and special web-sites with best quality of service, characteristics, recommendations and prices. Conduct a strategic group/space analysis for Ocean Park There are 2 key competitors for Ocean Park: First one is mentioned above Hong Kong Wetland Park. It is a conservation, education and tourism facility, consisted of large visitor centre, Wetland Interactive World and a Wetland Reserve. This park provided visitors with opportunities to observe wildlife, awareness and understanding the values of wetlands throughout the East Asian Region and beyond, wetlands conservation. So, its mainly about wetlands. The Hong Kong Wetland Park is also going to be a world-class ecotourism facility to serve both local residents and overseas tourists.(ttp://www.wetlandpark.com/en/aboutus/mission.asp) Compare to Disneyland and Ocean Park, Hong Kong Wetland Park has different facilities and product range (such as themed exhibition galleries, a theatre, a souvenir shop, an indoor play area), provide different services and thus, like Disney and Ocean Park, has its own niche. The range of facilities provided is the narrowest among 3 parks. Thus, Wetland Park cant meet demand of those visitors, who are looking for excitements and extreme pleasure, which can be found on a rides at 2 other parks. Who are the main visitors? Is it local or global? Is it has the lowest range of facilities than Ocean Park and Disney? Much lower prices. The second one arriving in a nearest future The Hong Kong Disneyland. After 28 years of operating as a near monopoly, Ocean Park would soon have to compete with one of the biggest names in the entertainment and theme park industry. Moreover, Disneyland targets the same group of parks customers families with children. It has well-known brand and reputation. Its the world leader in terms of entertainment. Several of Disneys characters (Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck and Winnie the Pooh) were household names all over the world, including in Hong Kong. Thus, Ocean Parks mascot, Whiskeys, appear lackluster by comparison. Image, which Disney company holds almost for a century (The Walt Disney Company was founded in 1923) and Disneyland itself (first park was opened in 1955) for half a century (compared to 28 years of Ocean park) helps to attract visitors not only from Hong Kong and midland China, but also from different part of the globe, especially those who are from the USA and Europe. Among other advantages of Disneyland are: location: it could be reached in just 10 minutes from Hong Kongs airport and less than 30 minutes from downtown Hong Kong. -at least 5.6 million people were expected to visit the Hong Kong Disneyland during its first year of operation (compared to 4 million of Ocean Park expected visitors). -the price claimed to be the least expensive among the five Disney amusement parks throughout the world. -the area of Disneyland is 310 acres compared to 215 acres of Ocean Park. -5 times greater investment than for Ocean Park. -Expected economic effectiveness is 3 billion more. -world-renowned innovation -high customer service standards Strategic groups within the entertainment and theme park industry in Hong Kong Broad Ocean Park Geographical Scope Global Product range Disneyland Narrow Wetland Park Local Conduct a market segment analysis for Ocean Park: How is the market segmented? How could it be segmented? Where would you position Ocean Parks products and services? Where would you position the competitors products? Ocean Park is a part of entertainment and theme industry. Its market is families with children. Disneyland future competitor applies to the same market. Despite this, Ocean Park has its own niche visitor from midland China. Internal Environment -What resources and capabilities does Ocean Park have? Resources (what a firm has): 1)Tangible: -financial suppliers of money (private and government loans) expected HK$5,6 billion investment; HK$145 billion economic effectiveness; surplus from operations in 2004 was HK$182,2 million on revenues of HK$536,2 million ; -physical Sea World, marine life and real animals:35 rides and attractions; 3 hotels; favorable and convenient location on the southern side of Hong Kong Island; wide range of new activities, such as the Abyss Turbo Drop thrill ride, seasonal and special events, popular water-related activities, interactive activities with animals, edutainment programs, successful Sea Jelly Spectacular and so on. 2)Intangible: long-time reputation of park with government, customers, -new brand sea lion named Whiskers; -cultural heritage of Hong Kong -great number of repeated visitors 3)Human: -37,100 employees, their skills and knowledge; -Thomas Mehrmann, new CEO of Ocean Park, and his previous experience at US-based Six Flags Corporation; Natural and wild life focus (Interactive activities with animals) Recreation and education Capabilities (what a firm can do) -New products, facilities and services development capability continually adding new features and attractions (such as: a new roller coaster, a subzero Ice Palace, 7.6 million liter aquarium with an underwater restaurant, extra 33 animals species, the number of rides doubled to 70), so, become a nearest future one of the best marine-based theme park with strong connection with nature; -Keeping park attractions fresh, novel and exciting, while minimizing costs; research and development, marketing and sales capabilities: plan to refurbish and rename Ocean Parks 2 major areas (the Lowland and the Highland), new hotels to be developed, including a five-star boutique, spa-type hotel this redevelopment plan would be completed in 2012!! recommendation part too!!, plan to open offices in the major urban areas of Guangzhou, Beijing and Shanghai to enhance promotional activities in Hong Kong and attract more mainland visitors -new incentive compensation, that linked employee compensation to the financial performance of park -What might be the competence of Ocean Park? Core competences resources and competences which are both valuable to customers and difficult to imitate -distinctive work culture, with its own norms and practices -local market loyalty -unique SmartFun Annual Pass program -cultural aspect (cultural heritage of Hong Kong), orientation on specific market segment-mainland Chinese visitors, -long-term reputation, distinct Chinese characteristics -powerful brand -customer trust -primary focus of OP on real nature and wildlife in contrast to Disneys strengths in cartoon characters, castles, virtual reality and fantasy -focused on education and the live animal attractions one of the key elements that will differentiate it from Hong Kong Disneyland when it opens in 2005. (from Echos articles) -cost and differentiation of product (continually adding new features and attractions as well as price advantage over Disney encouraged visitors to return to the park) -The aerial tram that takes visitors from the entrance side of the park over a hill to the rest of the attractions has become a Hong Kong tourism icon-is it still true (from Echos articles) Competitive advantage is explained by the distinctiveness of its resources and capabilities, by offering customers greater value by means of lower prices or greater benefits and service Competitive Advantages of Ocean Park over Disney: -long-time reputation, -hometown favorite, -cultural heritage of Hong Kong, orientation mostly on visitors from midland China -first-mover advantages -no need to engage in high-profile advertising and publicity, rely more on word-of-mouth -more diverse and wide range of products (including Sea World, marine life, real animals plus 35 rides and attractions) price advantage: the admission price for Disneyland is expected more than twice higher for child and one and a half higher for adult than price of Ocean park. And visitors from mainland China are very price sensitive. SmartFun Annual Pass program with unlimited admission to the park for its holders within a year, and discounted prices for food, souvenirs -Infrastructure 3 hotels had been constructed comparing to 2 at Disney. -orientation not only on entertainment, but also on education of visitors, differentiating by focusing on ecology and conservation issues -recognizable brand -In addition to all the American fun at the park, traditional Chinese holidays are still observed (Chinese New Year) -Disney has its characters, but we have flexibility to mix and match and bring in other entertainment (from Echos articles) -Does Ocean Park build its strategy on its resources, capabilities and competences? Yes. Importation of more species Water/Sea-related construction Hotel-better recreation -Are they sustainable? How can they be developed? Sustainable to some extent, but with some limitation. For example, it may face the opposition from environmental group. They cant relay only on resources, capabilities and competences-they need to be developed, innovated and refreshed, because they may begin to look dated and shabby for their visitors. SWOT Analysis Positive impact Negative impact Internal environment Strengths -Diversified and wide range of amusements (thrills, animals, seasonal and special events) -product line revamp -Highly linked with culture of mainland Chinese visitors, knows their demands and behavior -the main, oldest and most famous amusement park in the country (long-time reputation, hometown favorite), -cultural heritage of Hong Kong, -28 years of operating as a near monopoly -no need to engage in high-profile advertising and publicity, rely more on word-of-mouth -strong business connection to the local government (support from the government of Hong Kong and mainland China) -renovation of the parks brand image -mascot as a brand -previous experience of Thomas Mehrmann (new CEO of Ocean Park) in theme park industry (at US-based Six Flags Corporation) -local market loyalty -positive image of park Weaknesses -Located on a hills-hard to get to some riders-thats why visitors experienced rides only once. -different facilities are old and un-attractive and need renovation -a lot of activities depend on weather-ask Echo about it -no substantial capital investment External environment Opportunities -focusing on delivering mainland Chinas visitors as well as foreign visitors -development of new transportation South Island Line (when-check case-and ask Echo about it) that would cause convenience and fast access direct to the Park for the foreign and local visitors. -plan to build a mass transit railway (MTR) station to connect OP to the subway grid -the development and improvement of the amusement machinery can impact the services and features of the organization and its relationship to their foreign visitors. raise the standards of park with Disneyland arrival fostering sponsorships plan for building new hotels (boutique and spa-type) orientation on luxury tourism new market segment Threats -economical instability (such as the Asian financial crisis of 1999-2001, lasted for 3 difficult years for OP ), outbreak of different diseases, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 (Both these factors can affect number of visitors and their buying behavior, worsening the park financial situation) -arrival of Disneyland Hong Kong -OP was situated on valuable real estate: it could be shut down and its land could be sold off for other recreational or commercial purposes. Recommendation p.6-7!!! (recommend to use this business connection for future purposes, such as building a subway line for the visitors (itll happen in 2007). Say, in 3 years Build a mass transit railway (MTR) station for connection to the subway grid. Till 2015) (recommend to start innovation process, it will take about 6 years). Say, in 5 years Wireless communications | Analysis Wireless communications | Analysis Introduction Without any doubt Wireless communications can be considered as the fastest growing segment in the communications industry. Due to, it has captured the interest of the media and the interest for most of the people all over the world. Wireless technology has a huge impact on our lives today more than ever before. In addition, Methods of communication have evolved along many years ago starting from the first attempts to communicate verbal and even to manage the modern technology for the advancement of the ability to communicate effectively with each other. Every time you make a phone call, using the television or the computer is leading to activate the role of wireless technology and benefit from its positive sides. The principle of wireless communication as a process of transferring a piece of information from one place to another by electronic technology is only the use of electronic systems to connect with life which is changing constantly. Furthermore, the ability to communicate with people has evolved significantly since Guglielmo Marconi was the first who established the radios ability to provide continuous contact with the ships sailing on the English Channel in 1897, and since that time new wireless communications services have been adopted by people throughout the whole world. Finally, a brief history of the evolution of the wireless communications throughout the world could be useful in order to appreciate the enormous impact that communication Services will have on all population over the next several centuries. It is also useful for a new user to the wireless communication systems field to understand the huge impact that people is making in the development of new communications systems, services, and technologies. Literature review The goal of many experts and communications technology people was to find some way to transfer messages over long distances without the need for wires, this dream became true in 1901 when Juliimo Marconi and two of his colleagues on a hilltop in Newfoundland listening in to a reception, and they have heard Morse code, which represents barely letter X, moved the reference to a distance of 1700 miles from Cornwall in England, and represented the first successful transition to wireless. The success of this called the establishment of Marconi technology for wireless communication. However, wireless did not generate a high return from a commercial point after the ship Titanic disaster in 1912, While the ship was sinking, the radio operator sent a distress signal on the ship through Tlgrafha wireless Carpithia captured ship that was nearby, and these signals had saved the life of the last 700 of the passengers on Titanics 2200, and after this disaster, shortly called the need for all institutions to provide the large vessels marine radios, and this experience has led to the invention of Marconi radio. By 1922 the number of radio stations that provide broadcast live on 564 stations, today transmitted to us thousands of radio stations and multiple programs. Moreover, wireless communications are based on modern technology and the computer is one of the main elements of this technology. Nowadays, the vast majority of schools usually equipped with computer labs to teach computer skills to their students, it is no longer unfamiliar to the student in first grade to have some knowledge of basic background about the computer. With the computers within a few seconds you can access information anywhere around the world. Today services come with opportunities to learn new information and new data for homes through wireless communications. Definitions of Wireless Communications â€Å"Wireless technology is a truly revolutionary paradigm shift, enabling multimedia communications between people and devices for many locations.† By Andrea Goldsmith â€Å"Wireless communications is a broad and dynamic field that has spurred tremendous excitement and technological advances over the last few decades.† By Andrea Goldsmith Wireless Communications Protocols in Wi-Fi Wireless It is known that the process of wires and wireless communications in computer networks are subject to specific rules to control the reception of information properly and without any loss or time delay during the exchange of that information. For example, the internet is working through a set of protocols known as TCP/IP and wireless networks to connect to specific protocols and particularly a collection of protocols of 802.11 and a Bluetooth protocols which is the most known of them . 802.11g Protocol is latest version of the protocol 802.11b, it also work on the 2.4 GHz frequency, the speed of transferring the data in this protocols is 54Mbps, and the devices that work through that protocols can work through the previous 802.11b protocol as well. However, it is preferable to link the wireless network by more than one protocol. 802.11a Protocol work through 5 GHz frequency which makes it less vulnerable to interference from the LNB or any other devices, but the cost of this is greater than any other systems. The Bluetooth Protocol is transmits data at low speed at 1Mbps and within no more than 10 meters. Also, it works through the left 2.4 GHz. 802.11n Protocol is the protocol`s future, which has not been approved so far. It is expected to achieve the speed of data transfer within a distance of 100Mbps, Wireless networks Wireless local area networks have supplemented or replace the wired networks in many places. For example, homes, business or campuses. Many new applications including wireless sensor networks, smart homes, and remote telemedicine are emerging from research ideas to actual systems. The explosive expansion of wireless systems has come with the proliferation of laptop and palmtop computers and this suggest a bright future for wireless networks. Technical issues To enable wireless applications in the future, many technical challenges must be addressed and these challenges have been developed across all aspects of system design. Wireless local area networks LANs support high speed data transmissions with in a small region for example, campus or small building as users moves from place to place. Wireless devices that access these LANs are typically stationary or moving at pedestrian speeds. Wireless LANs can have either a star architecture, with wireless access points or hubs placed throughout the coverage region, or a peer-to-peer architecture, where the wireless terminals self-configure into a network. Dozens of wireless LANs companies and products appeared in the early 1990s to capitalize on the â€Å"pent-up demand† for high speed wireless data. These first generation wireless LANs were based on propriety and incompatible protocols. Wide Area Wireless Data Services To high percentage of mobility users, this could provide many wireless data over a large coverage area. A geographical region in these systems is usually serviced by base stations placed on the top of towers, rooftops or mountains. The base stations can be connected to a back-bone wired network or from a multi-hop and hoc wireless network. Broadband Wireless Access It gives a high-rate in wireless communications between a specific access point and multiple stations. These systems were initially proposed to help interactive video service to the home; however the application then shifted to providing high speed data networks for both homes and business. Satellite Networks Commercial satellite systems are another major component of the wireless communications infrastructure. Narda Satellite Networks could be a good example. It is a manufacturer of high-quality military and commercial satellite communications equipment. Low-cost, low-power Radios: Bluetooth and ZigBee It becomes feasible to embed radios into more types of electronic devices, because they have decreases their cost and power consumption which can be used to create smart homes, sensor networks, and many other applications. Two radios have emerged to help and support this trend: Bluetooth and ZigBee. 1-Bluetooth radios give short range of connections between wireless network devices and basic networking capabilities. The Bluetooth normally based on a tiny microchip inside a radio transceiver which is built into some digital devices. Bluetooth is mainly for short-range communication. Take an example, from a laptop to nearby printer or from a cell phone to a wireless headset which is common used by many people nowadays. 2- ZigBee â€Å"The ZigBee radio specification is designed for lower cost and power consumption than Bluetooth its specification is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard†. I.Poole 2004 Finally, the main benefit of using the ZigBee is to provide radio operation for months or years without the need to recharging it. Ad Hoc Wireless Networks It can be defined as a collection of wireless mobile nodes that self-configure to form a network without the aid of any established infrastructure as show in the figure below The Merriam-Webster dictionary lists two relevant definitions for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks:†formed or used for specific or immediate problems†, and â€Å"fashioned from whatever is immediately available†. These definitions show us main benefits of ad hoc wireless networks. Firstly, they can be adapted to specific applications; second, they can be produced from any networks nodes that could be available. Ad Hoc wireless networks have another important benefit as well. They can avoid the installation, cost and maintenance of network infrastructure. An overview of the basic application for ad hoc wireless networks, as applications it usually look for many of the requirements of the design. I will concentrate on the following applications: data networks, home networks and device networks. 1- Data network Ad hoc wireless data networks basically helps in exchanging the data between laptop computers, palmtops, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and other information devices. These data networks generally divided into three main categories based on the coverage area: LANs, MANs, and WANs (for â€Å"local†, â€Å"metropolitan†, and â€Å"wide† area networks. 2- Home networks Home networks is basically help to support communication between many devices like PCs, laptops, PDAs card-less phones, security and monitoring systems and entertainment systems anywhere in and around the home etc. Home networks could enable smart rooms that sense people movement and adjust light and heating consequently, as well as â€Å"aware homes† this feature network sensors and computers is for assistant living for elderly people or those with disabilities. 3- Device networks It provides a short-range wireless connections between devices, such networks are primarily intended to replace problematic cabled connections with wireless connections. â€Å"The main technology derivers for such networks are low-cost low-power radios with networking capabilities such as Bluetooth, ZigBee and ultra wide-band or UWB; the radios are integrated into commercial electronic devices to provide networking capabilities between devices†. J.Haartsen 2000. Conclusion and Discussion A new wireless communication technology has been presented. Some People might argued that

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Pact Analysis Essay -- Essays Papers

The Pact Analysis Friendship is the support for most great inspiration. Friendship creates peer pressure, both positive and negative, and it is nearly unavoidable in everyday life. The author’s of The Pact were raised in the streets of Newark, New Jersey. They were faced with many dangerous decisions. Despite many tremendous distractions, they were able to apply knowledge gained from friendship and experience to help them through their lives to propel them to where they are today. As a child, I felt that having friends was the most significant cause in who I am today. Throughout my life I have had many friends who have influenced me in numerous ways, but now most of them have become distant acquaintances. Although the majority of these people have very little communication with me now, only a few childhood friends continue to still be a part of my life now. The most frequent is my first and best friend, Matt. Somehow this name creates a pattern that continues to show up all over my life. It seems that all of the closest friends that I have had in my life have this name. The communication between Matt and I was amazing and our connection was extraordinary. Matt and I were ten years old and we spoke to each other in a language that only we knew. The language was created out of personal words or phrases that we created to describe situations. Our understanding of life was endorsed by rare bonds, and close family relationships. The two of us became undividable when we first met in kindergarten. Matt’s parents were older in age than my parents. I thought his father to be a strict family figure, because of his experience as a retired PA State Policemen, and his hat that he wore proudly all the time displaying in large words â€Å"Vietnam Veteran†. His mom was very opposite in comparison with his father. She was pleasant and she seemed to take on situations with ease. Matt was a full year older than me, he was the last child in a family of four. His siblings were twofold his age, and I feel this significantly impacted the two of us. Much like Sam, Rameck, and George, the authors of The Pact, I was able to see and understand at a young age much of what could become of me by observing and learning what much of what my family, Matt’s family, and many of the neighbors around me had to teach. George, one of the authors of The Pact, tells how h... ... my old school that had now been taken away from me in my new school. Students wore more fashionable clothes, and their attitude was different from what I was used to. They were more arrogant and I didn’t know why. This new atmosphere was challenging, and because I hadn’t grown up in the area, I became lost. I remained alone, only talking to Matt over the internet, but after a couple years we simply grew distant. I was without a stable friendship, and because of this I was almost easily manipulated. George, one of the authors of The Pact, explains this situation by stating â€Å"[i]n my experience, friends have more influence on one another’s lives than most anyone else does especially in those teenage years when kids are trying to discover who they really are† (107). I, like the author’s of The Pact, gave in to peer pressure and in time learned many lessons. In order to be successful in life, you need to have positive influences, whether it is friends, nature, or family. Everyone at some point in time will suffer from not having these influences. The reality is that no matter what the circumstances, with the right attitude and determination, you can succeed and be successful. The Pact Analysis Essay -- Essays Papers The Pact Analysis Friendship is the support for most great inspiration. Friendship creates peer pressure, both positive and negative, and it is nearly unavoidable in everyday life. The author’s of The Pact were raised in the streets of Newark, New Jersey. They were faced with many dangerous decisions. Despite many tremendous distractions, they were able to apply knowledge gained from friendship and experience to help them through their lives to propel them to where they are today. As a child, I felt that having friends was the most significant cause in who I am today. Throughout my life I have had many friends who have influenced me in numerous ways, but now most of them have become distant acquaintances. Although the majority of these people have very little communication with me now, only a few childhood friends continue to still be a part of my life now. The most frequent is my first and best friend, Matt. Somehow this name creates a pattern that continues to show up all over my life. It seems that all of the closest friends that I have had in my life have this name. The communication between Matt and I was amazing and our connection was extraordinary. Matt and I were ten years old and we spoke to each other in a language that only we knew. The language was created out of personal words or phrases that we created to describe situations. Our understanding of life was endorsed by rare bonds, and close family relationships. The two of us became undividable when we first met in kindergarten. Matt’s parents were older in age than my parents. I thought his father to be a strict family figure, because of his experience as a retired PA State Policemen, and his hat that he wore proudly all the time displaying in large words â€Å"Vietnam Veteran†. His mom was very opposite in comparison with his father. She was pleasant and she seemed to take on situations with ease. Matt was a full year older than me, he was the last child in a family of four. His siblings were twofold his age, and I feel this significantly impacted the two of us. Much like Sam, Rameck, and George, the authors of The Pact, I was able to see and understand at a young age much of what could become of me by observing and learning what much of what my family, Matt’s family, and many of the neighbors around me had to teach. George, one of the authors of The Pact, tells how h... ... my old school that had now been taken away from me in my new school. Students wore more fashionable clothes, and their attitude was different from what I was used to. They were more arrogant and I didn’t know why. This new atmosphere was challenging, and because I hadn’t grown up in the area, I became lost. I remained alone, only talking to Matt over the internet, but after a couple years we simply grew distant. I was without a stable friendship, and because of this I was almost easily manipulated. George, one of the authors of The Pact, explains this situation by stating â€Å"[i]n my experience, friends have more influence on one another’s lives than most anyone else does especially in those teenage years when kids are trying to discover who they really are† (107). I, like the author’s of The Pact, gave in to peer pressure and in time learned many lessons. In order to be successful in life, you need to have positive influences, whether it is friends, nature, or family. Everyone at some point in time will suffer from not having these influences. The reality is that no matter what the circumstances, with the right attitude and determination, you can succeed and be successful.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Sex Education Should Be Taught in Schools

Computer has become a very important part of our lives nowadays. During the past few years, computer has evolved in many ways and is probably without a doubt better than ever before. People are always trying to find something new that put in computer will improve our lives level. Computers can perform calculations much more quickly and accurately than humans. For example, modern computers can perform hundreds of millions of calculations per second. Large amounts of data can be stored in a small amount of space. For example, hundreds of pages worth of text can be stored on a 31?2inch floppy disk. Computers can work continuously and perform repetitive tasks well. Unlike their human counterparts, computers do not get bored or tire. Besides, information system has been with us for a long time, may be as the history of man him self. Then pencil and the clerk dominated the period around 1955. By today standard, data processing was very rudimentary for most organizations because i t was limited to only accounting system, payrolls etc to operate business for ex ample, order processing and invoicing but computer come along with changes. Businesses, and particularly the marketing aspect of businesses, rely a great deal on the use of computers. Computers play a significant role in inventory control, processing and handling orders, communication between satellite companies in an organization, design and production of goods, manufacturing, product and market analysis, advertising, producing the company newsletter, and in some cases, complete control of company operations. In today's extremely competitive business environment businesses are searching for ways to improve profitability and to maintain their position in the marketplace. As competition becomes more intense the formula for success becomes more difficult. Two particular things have greatly aided companies in their quests to accomplish these goals. They are the innovative software products and the World Wide Web. More and more manufacturing businesses are integrating some aspects of production, including inventory tracking, scheduling, and marketing. This idea, known as computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), speeds processing of orders, adds to effective materials management, and creates considerable cost savings. In addition to designing and manufacturing a product, a company must be effectively able to advertise, market, and sell its product. Much of what passes for business is nothing more than making connections with other people. What if you could pass out your business card to thousands, maybe millions of potential clients and partners? You can, twenty four hours a day, inexpensively and simply on the World Wide Web. The computer is an incredibly tool. As long as we have a internet connection with computer, we are connected to the world. It is an international network that connects all websites and search engines to give us information, new, data and entertainment. In fact, it is a global library, newspaper, and entertainment centre rolled into one. How can we say that this is a bad thing? At the click of the mouse, we can get any information we want. We don’t have to go to the library to do it. Many local libraries do not have the resources that the computer has. We can also talk to anyone in the world as long as with internet connection , they allow people across the globe to communicate with each other, no matter at what time, via the use of email or any socials network. We do not have to write a letter, put it in an envelope with stamp and post it, waiting for weeks for a reply. Once we e-mail someone, that person get the message almost in instantly. When we use a chatroom, we can talk to anyone in the world. The last one advantage of Computer is faster document writing. We can safely say that is a good tool to us when we have to complete our homework, assignment, projects or research. Back-up copies of work can be made easily, without having to re-write everything, and keeping of records.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Essay Othello Versus O

Othello vs. O (The main differences between the play and Movie) Although the movie â€Å"O† is a production based on Shakespeare’s â€Å"Othello†, several differences exist between the two such as women’s social status, Iago’s personality change, and the type of language employed by the characters. Desi plays a strong woman who won't let any man put her down.She stands up to Odin several times during the movie, showing that twentieth century women have higher status in society than they did in Shakespeare's time. In the movie, Desi assertively says, â€Å"If you want to be with me don’t ever talk like that to me again, ever! † Desdemona seems much more compliant to her husband's demands, even when she knows that she is going to die. Rather than run, she goes to her bedchamber and gets ready for bed, perhaps suspecting that it will be her last night alive.At the beginning of the play she declares just how loyal she is to Othello by sayi ng â€Å"to you [father], I am bound for life and education; I am hitherto your daughter: but here's my husband, and so much duty as my mother showed to you, preferring you before her father, so much I challenge that I may profess Due to the Moor my Lord†(Hall,). Desdemona knows her place in society and that is that she should be loyal to her husband or else she has been an unworthy wife. Iago’s character changes drastically in the movie compared to Shakespeare’s play.He would be considered the perfect villain in the play. He never seems to get fazed when he destroys Othello and Desdemona's relationship, when he makes Othello go crazy or when he kills Rodrigo: â€Å" My medicine, work! Thus credulous fools are caught†(Hall, 124). There are two major motives that drive Iago to destroy Othello’s life. The first being his hatred for Othello for not promoting him. His second motive is his desire for importance in society and Othello is a human being th at is blocking his pathway to glory. His character in â€Å"O†, Hugo, is a little bit different. He is trying to†¦