Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Definition and Examples of Colons

Definition and Examples of Colons The colon ( : )  is a mark of punctuation  used after a statement (such as an independent clause) or that introduces a quotation, an explanation, an example, or a series. In addition, the colon usually appears after the salutation of a business letter (Dear Professor Legree:), between the chapter and verse numbers in a biblical citation (Genesis 1:1), between the title and subtitle of a book or article (Comma Sense: A FUNdamental Guide to Punctuation), and between numbers or groups of numbers in expressions of time (3:00 a.m.) and ratios (1:5). History The word  colon  comes from the  Greek term  kÃ… lon,  meaning a part of a verse or clause, or more literally, part of a limb, particularly a leg. Keith Houston, who has authored several books on punctuation, explained the origin of the colon in his article The Mysterious Origins of Punctuation published on Sept. 2, 2015, on the  BBC  website. Houston said the punctuation mark originated, ultimately, during the third century B.C., in the Hellenic Egyptian city of Alexandria. A  librarian there named Aristophanes developed a series of three dots to break up the unbroken stream of text that had been the norm in writing at the time. The dots, aligned with the middle, bottom, or top of each line, represented what today would be a colon, comma, and period, respectively. Though the Romans disregarded the punctuation marks after conquering the Greeks, the dots eventually were given new life in the seventh century by Isidore of Seville. Ashley Timms in her Dec. 28, 2016, article, A History of Punctuation in English, published on the website of  Unravel Magazine, a linguistics journal, detailed the timeline: In his work The Etymologies (or  Etymologiae  in Latin), Isidore  of Seville explained that the highest dot marked the end of a sentence, the lowest dot functioned much like a comma does today, and the middle dot represented a pause somewhere in between the two: The work of Isidore of Seville was widely respected and he was even cited by Dante Alighieri and quoted by Geoffrey Chaucer.  Etymologiae  was treated as a textbook through the Middle Ages and no doubt had a profound effect on how writers used grammar and punctuation. Eventually, the middle dot evolved into two dots  possibly through Gregorian chants, which included  punctus  elevatas  (raised dots) that looked like the modern-day colon, says Timms. Purpose The Associated Press Stylebook, 2018 provides possibly the best explanation (among the various style guides) of the purpose and use of the colon. The AP says the punctuation mark should be used for: Emphasis:  The AP gives this example:  He had only one hobby: eating.Lists:  The colon usually comes at the end of a sentence or phrase to introduce lists, tabulations, and texts.Listings: Use the colon in such listings as time elapsed (1:31:07.2), time of day (8:31 p.m.), as well as biblical and legal citations (2 Kings 2:14; Missouri Code 3:245–260).Dialogue: An example would be:  Bailey: What were you doing the night of the 19th? Mason: I refuse to answer that.Question-and-answer interviews: The AP gives this example:  Q: Did you strike him?  A: Indeed I did. The AP says you can use a colon to introduce a direct quotation of one sentence that remains within a paragraph. You would also use a colon to introduce long- or block- quotations. When doing so, enter a hard return on the keyboard after the introductory text to bring the quoted material to the next space down, as shown in the history section above. Use and Misuse Use the colon at the  end of a sentence,  after initials  and  abbreviations, after other punctuation marks, in  computing and math, and in Bible verses, among other instances. At the end of a sentence: Use the colon instead of a period when the two clauses have a connection such that a period would be too hard of a break. Capitalize the first word after a colon only if the colon is followed by a proper noun or an independent clause. These examples are adapted from the Associated Press and June Casagrandes book, The Best Punctuation Book, Period: A Comprehensive Guide for Every Writer, Editor, Student, and Businessperson: Right: He promised this: The company will make good all the losses.Wrong:  Refrigerator temperature is critical: if its not cold enough, food will spoil. Right:  Refrigerator temperature is critical: If its not cold enough, food will spoil. Before a list:  Capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon only if it is a proper noun. Right:  Joe invited several friends to the party: Samantha, David, and Frank.Right:  The pizza came with three toppings: pepperoni, onion, and mushrooms.Wrong:  The pizza came with three toppings: Pepperoni, onion, and mushrooms. After quotation marks and other punctuation:  Use a colon  after  other punctuation marks but never before: The truth was simple (almost too simple): Dan was guilty.The truth, she said, was simple: Dan was guilty. Bible verses:  Cite  listing the number of chapter and verse(s) in this form: Matthew 3:16Luke 21:1–131 Peter 2:1 Math and computing:  Some styles- though not the AP- use colons to separate parts of a  ratio, as in: 2:5, which means a 2-to-5 ratio, two out of five, or 2/53:4, which means  a 3-to-4 ratio, three out of four, or 3/4 Additionally, you can also use a colon to separate a book title and subhead, such as for Casagrandes book listed previously in this section. Use a colon in a citation to separate the chapter and page number, as in: Journal of English Language Learning 15:220–229 Also, never combine a dash and a colon. Linking Equal Ideas Generally, use colons to show that two sentences, or a sentence and a clause, are  parallel  or relate to the same idea or subject, says David Crystal, author of Making a Point: The Persnickety Story of English Punctuation. Examples would be: A  liberal arts education  creates citizens:  people who can think broadly and critically about themselves and the world.- William Deresiewicz, Faulty Towers,  The Nation, May 23, 2011I was going to buy a copy of The Power of Positive Thinking, and then I thought:  What the hell good would that do?- Ronnie Shakes, standup comedian In the first quote, which joins a sentence followed by a nonsentence clause, Deresiewic uses the colon to show that citizens who receive a liberal arts education are the same group as people who can think broadly and critically. The second, by the late Shakes, who was a frequent guest on late-night television shows, uses  the colon (and irony) to show two sides of himself: the optimist who was going to buy a book about positive thinking and the pessimist who talked himself out of it.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Why Job Hopping is Great for Your Career

Why Job Hopping is Great for Your Career The old days of being stigmatized for switching jobs too frequently are behind us. There’s even research to suggest that workers who stay at the same job for longer than two years end up being paid less, while workers who continue to seek new opportunities are quicker to learn, better at making first impressions, and more successful. Certainly they’re more adaptable, keeping their skills sharper and their strategizing more efficient. Keep these following tips in mind if you think the job hopping lifestyle is for you.Keep it internalYou can even hop between jobs at the same company, if that kind of loyalty is important to you. The main thing is keeping yourself sharp and engaged in the work you’re doing- and never letting yourself get bored.Don’t hide your true selfIf you’re a job hopper, consider selling this a strength, rather than hiding it as a weakness. Build your constant striving for bigger and better challenges into your hiring narrative. As long as you haven’t left a trail of burnt bridges in your wake, chances are you can make this trait an asset in an interview.While the stigma continues to fade, make sure to actively sell this aspect of your application in the hiring process. Being up front about it will help to assuage whatever doubts a more recalcitrant hiring manager might have about your resume.Know it’s never too lateFinally, there’s nothing out there that says older workers can’t be job hoppers as well! They day you decide you’re done learning is the day you’d better think about retirement. Keep on chasing those pots of gold- learning new skills and seeking new challenges.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

PROFESSIONAL & ETHICAL ISSUES IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS Assignment

PROFESSIONAL & ETHICAL ISSUES IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS - Assignment Example By providing the ethical business practices, codes of conduct plays vital part for organisations by making them responsible toward clients, employees, government and other major stakeholders. Codes of conduct effectively describe the liabilities of management, comprising every level of employees about the method of dealing with information. In recent days, several corporate scandals have significantly impacted on the trust of people. Due to this reason, the codes of conducts have gained must importance for organization to maintain specially in the field of IS. Furthermore, limitations of national regulations to comply with the global standards have also generated the requirement of maintaining proper codes of conduct in the area of IS. In this way, codes of ethics in IS help the management of different organisations to become responsible towards major stakeholders. Nowadays, there has been a growing interest amid different organisations in order to adopt codes of conduct and practices within the area of Information System (IS). The existence of codes of conduct in an organisation is related with less perceived offences and misconducts in IS operations. Organisations which implement proper codes of conduct demonstrate strong value positioning that is beyond the value derived from financial performance. Codes of conduct provide certain responsibilities on behalf of organisations and employees in order to engage in ethical activities while using IS (Somers, 2001). Although codes of conduct has implemented worldwide, their role on IS have not been addressed appropriately. This research is based on assessing the practical role that played by codes of conduct and practices within IS of an organisation. The research will be undertaken by the execution of descriptive methods through analysing several secondary sources. In general, codes of conduct aim to describe ethics and principles that ought to direct the behaviour

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Making a fair decision when bias is held on a subject Essay

Making a fair decision when bias is held on a subject - Essay Example Self-regulation, according to Gilovich, Griffin, & Kahneman (2002) refers to a sitaution where a person or organization adheres to issues as regarding legal, ethical or th standards of safety instead of having outside factors determining the decision making process. That is to say that an action odf decision must have a situational setting. The situational setting has basic rules and laws that determine the required end point in which case there is a strong positive out turn on the issue. As much as self-regulation has its level of conflict of interest, it is worth noting that there are no perfect decisions and each decision follows laid down rules (Starzak, 2012). Moreover, the aspect of self regulation considers wider perspectives from the individual to organizational level. However, there are also situation in which a group or individuals are thriving in unethical situations (Rezende, 2009). Consider the aspect of a bureacucratic society. If the society is asked to eliminate such, it may consider eliminating the respective unethical aspects witnessed as opposed to the ideal behaviour on the whole. That is a short run perspective (Starzak, 2012). Avoiding the issue of regulatory capture is an effective way of developing fair decision making (Rezende, 2009). The regulatory capture would consider that there are situations in which individuals with high stakes would want to advance their interests at the expense of the vast majority who have low stakes in the matter.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Smoking in the UK - economic analysis of its costs Essay Example for Free

Smoking in the UK economic analysis of its costs Essay United Kingdom was the original state of smoking prevalence and smoking has caused widespread death of the first countries. According to ASH1 (2011) there are about 10 million adults who smoke cigarettes in Great Britain which is about a sixth of the total UK population. Throughout the United Kingdom, there was about one-third per cent of all the middle ages deaths caused by smoking. Therefore, United Kingdom is one of the most importance states of tobacco control. Government control on cigarette consumption through different instruments such as advertising-all advertising and promotion of tobacco are banned in the UK; taxation-taxation is probably the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. Raising tobacco prices through taxation can result in significant benefits to the economy. For instance, a 5% price increase would result in 190,000 fewer smokers and increase government revenue by à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½520 million per year in the first five years. As can be seen in figure 1, the numbers show that between 1991 and 2001 the retail price of cigarettes increased by about 80% in real terms. This is explained to a large extent by tax increases; over the same period the proportion of tax in the retail price rose from 73% to 80%. 1.2 Definition 1.2.1 External benefit External benefit is the benefit to the third party who is not involved into the activity which causes the cost (Anderton, 2008:96) 1.2.2 External cost External cost is the cost to the third party who is not involved into the activity which causes the cost (Anderton, 2008:96) 1.3 Theory This topic exist the relationship between demand and price which is if price increases, the quantity demanded becomes lower. Furthermore, taxation is a factor of the increase and decrease of demand and supply. Besides, advertising also is an important factor to influence the demand of cigarette. 1.4 Aims This article will tell you the positive and negative externalities of cigarette smoking. Moreover, it offers how effective the government had been done for reducing consumption of cigarette and also the other opinions of government instruments which can control the consumption of tobacco are included. 2. Finding 2.1 External benefit of smoking Nowadays, there is a great deal of data show that cigarette is not good for our human. However, smoking cigarette still has its advantage. According to an article published in 1995 in Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, the smoking rates of schizophrenics have much higher than people with other mental illnesses. Therefore, smoking cigarette can alleviate symptoms of mental illnesses such as anxiety and schizophrenia. 2.2 External cost of smoking 2.21 Secondhand smoking In a research, passive smoking cause about 600,000 deaths per year all over the world. (ASH 1,2011)Thus, secondhand smoking is a big problem in UK. It is not only passive smoker easier than the smoker to get decease; it is also influence the later generations. According to an article Smoking in Public place (2003) shows that the link between passive smoking and both lung cancer and coronary heart disease, increasing the risk for each by around 25%. Secondhand smoking also does harm to babies and children which with an increased risk of respiratory infections, increased severity of asthma symptoms, more frequent occurrence of chronic coughs, phlegm and wheezing, and increased risk of cot death and glue ear.(ASH1, 2011) 2.3 The policy of UK Government ?2.31 The ban of advertising Advertisement has high influence in propagating. Thus, prohibiting the advertising of cigarette is a useful way to control the consumption of tobacco. The Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act which was enacted in 2003, prohibited virtually all forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, including print media and billboards, and sponsorship of sport was finally forbidden by July 2005. Moreover, as the ASH (2011) said that the UK Government estimated that banning cigarette advertising would lead to the decrease of consumption of around 3%. 2.32 The prohibiting in public place Smoking in public places and workplaces is now banned by law in UK. Except some places which include guest bedrooms in hotels and certain rooms in care homes, hospices and prisons. (ASH, 2011)Other public place and work place must no smoking such as restaurant. One typical example is Pizza Hut restaurants where smoking has no longer been permitted in all the 350 restaurants since early this year (Smoking in public place, 2003) 3. Discussions 3.1 Taxation Raising tobacco prices through increase taxation is a useful means. Smoking always bad for our health and a lot of young people also smoke. Controlling consumption of tobacco by taxation is probably the most effective (and certainly the most cost-effective) means. As we can see in Table2, the tax of cigarette was always increasing from 1990 to 2011.So when the price of tobacco increase, the demand of cigarette follows decrease. According to ASH 3the Treasury earned à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½10.5 billion in revenue from tobacco duties for the financial year 2009-2010 (including VAT) Thus, government can control the consumption of cigarette reducing so that decreases the death of people who died because of smoking. From a data The UK tax paid tobacco market is worth around à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½14 billion. The market is dominated by cigarettes, which represent 93.3% of the total duty paid market(ASH,2011), we can imagine how great extent the government increases the duty of cigarette. The taxation is about 76% of the price of a packet of cigarettes. The price of cigarettes has a major effect on cigarette consumption. Higher tobacco taxes reduce smoking and smoking related sickness people, so the number of smoker will cut down. Some people who have no high income will stop smoking, or never start because of the high cost. 3.2Advertising Advertisement is a very useful way to propagate. Thus, the government in UK is aware enough of this fact and declares martial law of advertising. AS the ASH said that the Government estimated that the ban on tobacco advertising in the UK would lead to a drop in consumption of around 3%, saving approximately 3000 lives in the long term.(ASH,2010)Most conspicuous forms of tobacco advertising and promotion in the UK were banned and all the package of cigarette must be normal not magnificent. All forms of tobacco advertising and promotion are banned in the UK with the exception of limited advertising at the point of sale. This will end when a ban on the display of tobacco products in large shops enters into force from 6 April 2012. Small shops will have until April 2015 to comply with the law.(ASH3, 2011)Moreover, the UK government introduced picture warnings on cigarette packs in October 2008. The picture of package will make smoker feel nausea because the picture is about what result after people smoking such as yellow tooth or black lung. This is also the efficacious means to reduce the consumption of tobacco and the number of smokers. 4. Conclusion 4.1 Summary All in all, smoking has more disadvantages than advantages even only harm and no good. As we all know, teenager smoking is also a problem which must be solved. It is easy to get disease and smokers often live in a short life. So governments try various devices to restrain the consumption of cigarette to resolve these problems. 4.2 Recommendation In order to efficaciously control the consumption of cigarette, government can set up more festival about banning smoking and propagate some preferential policy. For example, when people agree to give up smoking, the person will get corresponding subsidize. 5. Reference Anderton.A(2008) Economics(5th Edition) Harlow Person Education ASH1(2011)[online]Smoking statistics Available at http://www.ash.org.uk/information/facts-and-stats/fact-sheets [Accessed at 16/12/2011] ASH2 (2011)[online]Tobacco regulation Available at http://www.ash.org.uk/information/facts-and-stats/fact-sheets [Accessed at 16/12/2011] ASH3 (2011)[online]Tobacco economics Available at http://www.ash.org.uk/information/facts-and-stats/fact-sheets [Accessed at 16/12/2011] Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. [online]Volume 29, Issue 6. 2005; 1021-1034 Available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763405000874[Accessed at 7/12/2011] Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003) Smoking in public place Available at http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn206.pdf

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Tiger Woods: The Making Of A Champion :: essays research papers

Tiger Woods: The making of a Champion Matt Buyan C-period 1-1-97 TIGER WOODS THE MAKING OF A CHAMPION BY: JOHN GARRITY Eldrick Tiger Woods was born in Brooklyn, NY on December 30, 1975. His parents names are Earl and Kutildra. Earl is a  ¼ American Indian, a  ¼ Chinese and half Black. Kutildra is a  ¼ White, a  ¼ Chinese and half Thai. Both of Earl's parents were dead by the time he was 13. He named his son "Tiger" after his Vietnam War partner Nguyen Phong of the South Vietnamese army. He nicknamed him Tiger for his iron will and bravery. Around 1967 or 1968 they lost contact and never spoke to one another since. Earl hopes that 1 day Nguyen will see his son' s name either on TV or in a paper and contact him, so they can reunite. Tiger was first introduced to golf by his father who bought him a junior golf set as a kid. Tiger and his family now live in Cypress, California and he stands a tall 6'4 and weighs a lean 155. Now about his golfing days. Tiger won the 1991, 1992, and 1993 U.S Junior Amateur championships. When winning his third he brought out a record attendance of over 15,000 spectators. Woods was also the first African- American to win the U.S Juniors. He quotes " when I am up at the tee all I think about is where I want my ball to go". During this whole time Tiger attended Stanford college and maintained straight A's in his sophomore year. He had originally planed to graduate from Stanford before going pro, but when Nike offered him a 42 million dollar deal to wear their clothes for 5 years he couldn' t resist. This was not the only reason he decided to go pro. After an excellent finish in the British Open, Tiger felt that he also had enough mental strength to go pro. His parents are very supportive of him and felt fine with this. Wood' s first pro win was the Las Vegas invitational. At the Honors Course in Texas he brought out an enormous crowd. Of the 14,694 tickets sold, 14,000 were fans wanting to see their Tiger. If you were to ever meet Tiger Woods for yourself he would probably be the nicest person you will ever meet. He signs just about every autograph and is never mean to fans. Tiger and his father gave out free golf lessons to caddies and junior golfers. Many of you may no his nickname the "Come Back Kid", he got Tiger Woods: The Making Of A Champion :: essays research papers Tiger Woods: The making of a Champion Matt Buyan C-period 1-1-97 TIGER WOODS THE MAKING OF A CHAMPION BY: JOHN GARRITY Eldrick Tiger Woods was born in Brooklyn, NY on December 30, 1975. His parents names are Earl and Kutildra. Earl is a  ¼ American Indian, a  ¼ Chinese and half Black. Kutildra is a  ¼ White, a  ¼ Chinese and half Thai. Both of Earl's parents were dead by the time he was 13. He named his son "Tiger" after his Vietnam War partner Nguyen Phong of the South Vietnamese army. He nicknamed him Tiger for his iron will and bravery. Around 1967 or 1968 they lost contact and never spoke to one another since. Earl hopes that 1 day Nguyen will see his son' s name either on TV or in a paper and contact him, so they can reunite. Tiger was first introduced to golf by his father who bought him a junior golf set as a kid. Tiger and his family now live in Cypress, California and he stands a tall 6'4 and weighs a lean 155. Now about his golfing days. Tiger won the 1991, 1992, and 1993 U.S Junior Amateur championships. When winning his third he brought out a record attendance of over 15,000 spectators. Woods was also the first African- American to win the U.S Juniors. He quotes " when I am up at the tee all I think about is where I want my ball to go". During this whole time Tiger attended Stanford college and maintained straight A's in his sophomore year. He had originally planed to graduate from Stanford before going pro, but when Nike offered him a 42 million dollar deal to wear their clothes for 5 years he couldn' t resist. This was not the only reason he decided to go pro. After an excellent finish in the British Open, Tiger felt that he also had enough mental strength to go pro. His parents are very supportive of him and felt fine with this. Wood' s first pro win was the Las Vegas invitational. At the Honors Course in Texas he brought out an enormous crowd. Of the 14,694 tickets sold, 14,000 were fans wanting to see their Tiger. If you were to ever meet Tiger Woods for yourself he would probably be the nicest person you will ever meet. He signs just about every autograph and is never mean to fans. Tiger and his father gave out free golf lessons to caddies and junior golfers. Many of you may no his nickname the "Come Back Kid", he got

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Communication Cycle Health and Social Care

P2 Theories of communication -The communication cycle Effective communication involves a two-way process in which each person tries to understand the viewpoint of the other person. † According to Argyle, skilled interpersonal interaction (social skills) involves a cycle in which you have to translate or ‘decode' what other people are communicating and constantly adapt your own. Communication is a cycle because when two people communicate they need to check that their ideas have been understood†.An example of good communication involves the process of checking understanding, using reflective or active listening. Argyle's stages of the communication cycle were an idea occurs, message coded, message sent, message received, message decoded, message understood. Verbal and non-verbal communication is not always straightforward. The communication cycle involves a kind of code that has to be translated. There are 5 stages in the â€Å"communication cycle† which are: 1. Idea occurs: this is the stage when an individual thinks what he is going to say and who to. 2.Message coded: this is the way that an individual puts his thoughts together with the way he is going to communicate, putting the thoughts into language or into some other code such as sign language. 3. Message sent: this is stage is when an individual speaks or sign what they are going to say, in few words is the way the message is sent. 4. Message received: this is where the person you are speaking to has listened to what you said and they have to sense the message by hearing or watching. 5. Message decoded: The receiver has to understand the message that the sender has just sent.This could be misunderstood easily by interpreting words differently or they might make assumptions about your body language as well as words. 6. Message understood: at this stage the message should be understood but it does not always happen at the first time, and if so the cycle needs to start all over agai n. Without just any one of these stages the cycle would not work. An example of a difficult situation is when your service user tells you they are in pain, but can’t describe the pain they are in.This is difficult because you need to understand what the pain is and what the source of the pain is so that you can resolve the pain and provide a diagnosis, so if they can’t describe the pain you are unable to do so. You can be asking simple questions which may help you understand what sort of pain they are suffering, also by feeling where they claim the problem is and you can see from their reaction if it is painful, but not inflicting too much pain upon them. Using the communication cycle effectively will help. M1 How communication cycle may be used to communicate sensitive issues. Ideas occur: the nurse will start thinking on how communicate to the wife and that she is going to be the one to tell her. She will ask herself what could be the best way to communicate and when and where she needs to communicate about the husband’s condition. This promotes effective communication. * Message coded: the nurse has thought about the ideas and has organized her thoughts; she knows exactly what she is going to say. She has to think about the voice tonality she should use in order to prevent the wife thinking the nurse is not bothered about the loss.Body language plays an important role and could show that the nurse cares about the situation. The nurse will start thinking about the language she is going to use and ask herself what the wife already knows about it e. g. the husband is ill. The nurse will take the wife through to a private room where it's only them two; by doing this the wife should know that the nurse is going to tell her something terrible, the seating would be a barrier if the seats are too far away from each other; the nurse should sit close to the wife. * Message sent: the nurse has now told the wife about her husband.She has used the c ommunication cycle to encode the information correctly and therefore, said something like â€Å"I'm afraid that your husband passed away last night in his sleep, we did everything we could to save him, we're sorry,† rather than something like â€Å"Your husband died last night,†. The first of which is a correct way of putting it, and the second way is a much more insensitive way of saying it. * Message received: now the wife has to sense the message the nurse has just sent her by hearing the words or looking at the body language. Message decoded: the wife now needs to decode the message or to interpret it. She has to observe the body language and the way the message is expressed by the nurse. * Message understood: at this stage the patient should have understood the message by the nurse should but this does not always happen at the first time and this can be identified from the wife’s reaction and behavior. If this does not happen the cycle needs to start all ov er again. P2 theories of communication/ M1 how communication cycle may be used to communicate sensitive issues. Tuckman’s cycle In 1965, Bruce Tuckman, an educational psychologist, suggested that most groups go through four stages in group interactionas and described them as Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing. He did this after he had observed many small groups in various environments and concluded that all groups went through certain â€Å"stages† before they became optimally effective. Name of stage | Description of stage and scenario| Forming| The first stage is forming; this is an important stage because the forming of the team takes place.This stage is also called â€Å"ice-breaking† because it is a stage where all the team members get to know each other and become friendly, they are unsure about who everybody is and what their roles are. The individual’s behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others, and avoid controversy or con flict. The psychologist, doctor and surgeon should meet and discuss about the situation, sharing informations concerns and questions. | Storming| The second stage is storming; at this stage the individual start to show their real feelings and their personalities too.This is because they start to relax and be comfortable around others in their group. Also others in the group may start to have conflict were they have different opinions about ideas, and they don't agree on others, relationships between members will be made or broken and some may never recover. In extreme cases the team can become stuck in the Storming phaseThe professionals starts questioning themselves what their role and duties in the group are or what they are responsible for. Each professional hould say what their solution is and how long it will take, followed by the risk that will come with it. This is a stage where patience is fundamental as there will be disagreements and they will avoid listening to each other ; this is the reason why it will take time. | Norming| As the team moves out from the storming phase they enter the third stage which is norming; this is when the group starts working as a team after having had their arguments and they start to trust themselves as they accept the vital contribution of each member of the team.The team members know each other better, they may be socializing together, and they are able to ask each other for help. At this stage they all should bring the ideas together and reach a conclusion on what they are going to do. They start working as a team and must agree with the decisions made, and if they do not agree they should at least follow the team to avoid the time being wasted. They need to take in consideration how dangerous the procedure will be. Performing| This is the last stage. Many groups never reach the performing stage. Everyone knows each other well enough to be able to work together, and trusts each other enough to allow independent activit y. There is a high level of accepting others, listening to others, and helping others. Performance is delivered through people working effectively together. The team has come to a conclusion and their plan will be applied soon. A timeline needs to be made | Communication Cycle Health and Social Care P2 Theories of communication -The communication cycle Effective communication involves a two-way process in which each person tries to understand the viewpoint of the other person. † According to Argyle, skilled interpersonal interaction (social skills) involves a cycle in which you have to translate or ‘decode' what other people are communicating and constantly adapt your own. Communication is a cycle because when two people communicate they need to check that their ideas have been understood†.An example of good communication involves the process of checking understanding, using reflective or active listening. Argyle's stages of the communication cycle were an idea occurs, message coded, message sent, message received, message decoded, message understood. Verbal and non-verbal communication is not always straightforward. The communication cycle involves a kind of code that has to be translated. There are 5 stages in the â€Å"communication cycle† which are: 1. Idea occurs: this is the stage when an individual thinks what he is going to say and who to. 2.Message coded: this is the way that an individual puts his thoughts together with the way he is going to communicate, putting the thoughts into language or into some other code such as sign language. 3. Message sent: this is stage is when an individual speaks or sign what they are going to say, in few words is the way the message is sent. 4. Message received: this is where the person you are speaking to has listened to what you said and they have to sense the message by hearing or watching. 5. Message decoded: The receiver has to understand the message that the sender has just sent.This could be misunderstood easily by interpreting words differently or they might make assumptions about your body language as well as words. 6. Message understood: at this stage the message should be understood but it does not always happen at the first time, and if so the cycle needs to start all over agai n. Without just any one of these stages the cycle would not work. An example of a difficult situation is when your service user tells you they are in pain, but can’t describe the pain they are in.This is difficult because you need to understand what the pain is and what the source of the pain is so that you can resolve the pain and provide a diagnosis, so if they can’t describe the pain you are unable to do so. You can be asking simple questions which may help you understand what sort of pain they are suffering, also by feeling where they claim the problem is and you can see from their reaction if it is painful, but not inflicting too much pain upon them. Using the communication cycle effectively will help. M1 How communication cycle may be used to communicate sensitive issues. Ideas occur: the nurse will start thinking on how communicate to the wife and that she is going to be the one to tell her. She will ask herself what could be the best way to communicate and when and where she needs to communicate about the husband’s condition. This promotes effective communication. * Message coded: the nurse has thought about the ideas and has organized her thoughts; she knows exactly what she is going to say. She has to think about the voice tonality she should use in order to prevent the wife thinking the nurse is not bothered about the loss.Body language plays an important role and could show that the nurse cares about the situation. The nurse will start thinking about the language she is going to use and ask herself what the wife already knows about it e. g. the husband is ill. The nurse will take the wife through to a private room where it's only them two; by doing this the wife should know that the nurse is going to tell her something terrible, the seating would be a barrier if the seats are too far away from each other; the nurse should sit close to the wife. * Message sent: the nurse has now told the wife about her husband.She has used the c ommunication cycle to encode the information correctly and therefore, said something like â€Å"I'm afraid that your husband passed away last night in his sleep, we did everything we could to save him, we're sorry,† rather than something like â€Å"Your husband died last night,†. The first of which is a correct way of putting it, and the second way is a much more insensitive way of saying it. * Message received: now the wife has to sense the message the nurse has just sent her by hearing the words or looking at the body language. Message decoded: the wife now needs to decode the message or to interpret it. She has to observe the body language and the way the message is expressed by the nurse. * Message understood: at this stage the patient should have understood the message by the nurse should but this does not always happen at the first time and this can be identified from the wife’s reaction and behavior. If this does not happen the cycle needs to start all ov er again. P2 theories of communication/ M1 how communication cycle may be used to communicate sensitive issues. Tuckman’s cycle In 1965, Bruce Tuckman, an educational psychologist, suggested that most groups go through four stages in group interactionas and described them as Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing. He did this after he had observed many small groups in various environments and concluded that all groups went through certain â€Å"stages† before they became optimally effective. Name of stage | Description of stage and scenario| Forming| The first stage is forming; this is an important stage because the forming of the team takes place.This stage is also called â€Å"ice-breaking† because it is a stage where all the team members get to know each other and become friendly, they are unsure about who everybody is and what their roles are. The individual’s behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others, and avoid controversy or con flict. The psychologist, doctor and surgeon should meet and discuss about the situation, sharing informations concerns and questions. | Storming| The second stage is storming; at this stage the individual start to show their real feelings and their personalities too.This is because they start to relax and be comfortable around others in their group. Also others in the group may start to have conflict were they have different opinions about ideas, and they don't agree on others, relationships between members will be made or broken and some may never recover. In extreme cases the team can become stuck in the Storming phaseThe professionals starts questioning themselves what their role and duties in the group are or what they are responsible for. Each professional hould say what their solution is and how long it will take, followed by the risk that will come with it. This is a stage where patience is fundamental as there will be disagreements and they will avoid listening to each other ; this is the reason why it will take time. | Norming| As the team moves out from the storming phase they enter the third stage which is norming; this is when the group starts working as a team after having had their arguments and they start to trust themselves as they accept the vital contribution of each member of the team.The team members know each other better, they may be socializing together, and they are able to ask each other for help. At this stage they all should bring the ideas together and reach a conclusion on what they are going to do. They start working as a team and must agree with the decisions made, and if they do not agree they should at least follow the team to avoid the time being wasted. They need to take in consideration how dangerous the procedure will be. Performing| This is the last stage. Many groups never reach the performing stage. Everyone knows each other well enough to be able to work together, and trusts each other enough to allow independent activit y. There is a high level of accepting others, listening to others, and helping others. Performance is delivered through people working effectively together. The team has come to a conclusion and their plan will be applied soon. A timeline needs to be made |

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Linguistics and Structuralism Essay

Structuralism is a mode of thinking and a method of analysis practiced in 20th-century social sciences and humanities; it focuses on recurring patterns of thought and behaviour ? it seeks to analyse social relationships in terms of highly abstract relational structures. Structuralism is distinctly different from that applied to Radcliffe-Brown? it involves more the bio and psychological aspect of human studies rather than social structures. Claude Levi-Strauss was the one to pioneer structuralism; he suggested that cultural phenomena such as myths, art, kinship systems and language display certain ordered patterns or structures. With these, he believed that the structure of the human mind could be revealed. He reasoned that behind the surface of individual cultures there must exist natural properties common to us all: innate structures universal to all man. Levi-Strauss focused his attention on the patterns or structures existing beneath the customs and beliefs of all cultures. Methodologically, Strauss drew his models from structural linguistics, analysing forms of social activity as though they were languages. In other words, the things a society does, the way people in this society act, is compared to language; behaviour is acted out unconsciously as is grammar in the case of language. Therefore, societies differ just as grammar differs between one culture and another, but what Levi-Strauss sought was the universal/common structure behind it. He believed that while the surface phenomenon may vary, the underlying ordering principles are the same. Levi-Strauss believed that basic thinking occurs as sets of contrasts. All cultures think in to terms of opposites so as to classify-meaning we must be able to distinguish between things. For example, life, death; spirit, body; black, white; red, green (stop and go) ? these words alone do not carry much significance; they have a meaning and that’s it ? basic facts. We take the words as they are by use of external references from what society acknowledges to it to be. A pen is not an eraser because society has accepted it to be a pen. Levi-Strauss argued that culture is to be understood as a surface phenomenon which reveals the universal human tendency to order and classify experiences and dynamics. He compared people’s language to the?  rules’ that govern society, in that the governed are largely unconscious of what they know. He compared speech – the use of sounds and rules, mainly in the form of sentences to the ideas and behaviour that result from the application of largely unconscious social rules. Members of a society are much more likely to be conscious of their actual ideas and behaviours than they are of the deeply structured rules that make these ideas and behaviours possible, but the ideas and behaviours of a given group of people, according to Strauss, can only be understood once the â€Å"deep† structures in their minds can be discovered. He says that human responses are largely dissimilar, and that the surface structure is what will consequently show different cultural behaviour. In T. O. K. , we are currently discussing language, mind and meaning ? we covered the same man, Noam Chomsky, the same man mentioned in the book. He pursued the same line of inquiry in linguistics as Strauss. Chomsky believes that the human brain contains a language system base before birth, but ? goes to seed’ if not stimulated after birth. All babies are programmed to all phonetic systems but are channelled into particular language groups on socialization. In other words, a child who has Danish parents will eventually end up speaking Danish unless brought up elsewhere. Structuralism is often criticized for not being able to prove something through hypothesis testing and validation. Strauss makes unprovable assumptions about humans, and some people find it hard to believe the concept of universal structures. Structuralism also tends to ahistorical, thus not accounting for the way history effects the present.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Nurses Essays

Nurses Essays Nurses Essay Nurses Essay (1) According to the Australian Indigenous Psychologists Association (2010): ‘The term cultural competency refers to a long-term, developmental process that moves beyond cultural awareness (the knowledge about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people primarily gained through media resources and workshops) and cultural sensitivity (knowledge as well as some level of direct experience with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people). Cultural competency emphasizes the idea of effectively operating in different cultural contexts: knowledge, sensitivity, and awareness programs o not include this concept. Cultural competence aims to reduce barriers to high quality care experienced by Indigenous people and is directly linked to improving social and emotional wellbeing and mental health outcomes. ’ Cultural Competence What is cultural competence? Cultural competence is the ability to interact effectively with people across different cultures. It has four components: * Awa reness of ones own cultural worldview (assumptions, biases) * A positive attitude towards cultural differences * Knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews * Cross-cultural communication skills What is cultural competence in health care? Culturally competent health care providers provide the best possible care for all their clients and work in the most productive way with all their colleagues. Everyone has a culture Cultural competence begins with the recognition that we are all born, raised and living in social, educational and organisational cultures. These cultures shape our assumptions, beliefs, values and behaviours. When we interact with others, the similarities and differences between our cultural expectations often make the interaction both more interesting, and more challenging. In a health setting, these challenges must be met if we are to provide equitable, appropriate and accessible services to all our clients. Competent practitioners are culturally competent A person who is culturally competent can communicate sensitively and effectively with people who have different languages, cultures, religions, genders, ethnicities, disabilities, ages and sexualities. Culturally competent health staff strive to provide services that are consistent with the clients’ needs and values firstly by acknowledging them, and secondly by, wherever possible, responding to them appropriately. Health care practitioners need to develop a broad repertoire of skills, knowledge, attitudes, perspectives and practices which they can use to enhance their cultural competence and direct their relationships with clients and colleagues. Cultural competence is about organisational competence It is very difficult to operate as a culturally competent practitioner without organisational support. SESIH is strongly committed to equality for clients and staff, and continues its commitment to the policies and principles of multicultural health. Benefits of a culturally competent workforce Lack of cultural competence impacts on both clients and staff. Clients who feel that their concerns have not been understood, who feel they have been dismissed or ignored, or who have not received optimum services because of their cultural background or ethnicity or language will find it hard to develop a sense of trust in a practitioner or a service. Culturally competent health staff build trust and respect which leads to increased client satisfaction and improved health outcomes such as a better use of the staff and clients’ time, more accurate information, and more effective and acceptable outcomes for staff and clients. Cultural competence benefits everyone. Why is culture so important in health care? Because health care is cultural. Although the scientific bases for medical treatment and care is considered ‘objective’, the way that we choose and use health services, whether we accept a diagnosis, how we decide if we will continue with a particular medical treatment, and the sorts of questions we ask health staff are all culturally influenced. Staff need to recognise the beliefs and values that affect our health decisions and take account of them when treating us (2)

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Womanly Words †Gyn

Womanly Words – Gyn Womanly Words Gyn Womanly Words Gyn By Sharon Well, I couldnt let the men have all the fun. English has a lot of words that contain the Greek root meaning woman or female gyn. This appears at the start or in the middle of many common words. As with the andr- words, many of these have biological or scientific origins. Heres a list to start you off: acrogynous plants having female organs at the top of the stem androgynoid a male with female features androgynous having both male and female characteristics; also applies in botany. apogynous, apogyny referring to the condition of having non working female reproductive organs calligyniaphobia a fear of beautiful women (if youre scared of all women, then you have gynephobia or gynecophobia) ergatogynous describes insects who have worker females gyneceum harem or womans house gynander woman who has male characteristics (gyndandrous refers to plants) gynarchy government run by women gynecentric regarding women as primary or central gynecium the pistil, or female part of a flower gynecogen something that stimulates female sexual characteristics (hormone) gynecology the study and treatment of diseases that affect womens reproductive systems gynogamete ovum gynoid robot shaped like a woman Many more here. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:20 Great Similes from Literature to Inspire YouWhen to Form a Plural with an ApostropheAdvance vs. Advanced

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Research report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Research report - Essay Example Some of the events that took place in the US music industry in 1993 included; the stamp named Elvis Preley that was given out by the US postal service on the 8th of January that year. Also, the original soundtrack album named the bodyguard was ranked first in history. Since then Nielson Sound scan came up with a monitoring systems that had computerized sales in May of 1990 for selling of copies that exceeded on million in one week in the US on the 9th of January. On 12th of January cream reunited for a performance in the induction ceremony of rock and roll hall of fame. On the 13th of the same month bobby brown became arrested for simulating an act that was sexual on stage. This happened in Augusta, Georgia, USA (Tschmuc, 35). On February same year many events took place that include; interviews of Michael Jackson by Oprah Winfrey on the prime time special of the US Television on 10th. This was the Jackson’s first interview in 14 years and was the interview that was most watched in the history of television. On 14th Harry Nilsson suffered a heart attack that was not fatal. Some of the events that took place in March same year included; Patti Labelle was honored as star of the walk of fame of Hollywood in USA. On 4th, Depeche Mode was ranked the first band in Britain to achieve the first position in USA in the 200 billboard which performed the album known as songs of faith and devotion. On the 29th, the suede album eponymous debut was released. It entered 1st position in the album chart as it was the fastest moving album in terms of selling in Britain. This was a new record in the UK act (Unterberger, Samb and Jennifer 14). In April the events that took place included; Jay Roach who was a screen writer married Bangles’ Susanna Hoff’s in Los Angele, USA on 17th. On 22nd, a Broadway was opened by The Who’s Tommy. On 29th, the Barry white animation version was shown in the episode cartoon series of the US television. On the 7th of June which was